Dendera or Dandara: Goddess Hathor Temple at Qena Egypt.

Dendera or Dandara was the Egyptian Temple dedicated to the goddess Hathor, is located in the upper Egypt region, 60 kilometers north of Luxor, west of the actual city of Qena, the west side of the Nile river, Dendera faces the North and the Nile, as well.

Portal at Dendera temple Qena Egypt

Although, most of the buildings that now can be see, were built during the Greco Roman period, during the Ptolemy rulers, including Pharaoh-Queen Cleopatra VII extended additions constructions, This rules honored goddess Hathor, as they found a veritable coincidence and matching characteristics of this Egyptian goddess to their goddess Aphrodite the goddess of procreation, love, beauty, arts, music and passion and relevance to Planet Venus.

Roman rulers as well added to the Dendera Temple Complex constructions since they also related this goddess to their goddess Venus, and for such same reason the Roman governors were depicted in the wall of some of the sanctuaries or chapels, gave offerings to the Temple and honored to the Egyptian goddess Hathor as their goddess Venus.

However, its Egyptian time-origin goes far back, there are celebratory inscriptions of Ramses II, Thotmes III from the eighteen dynasty of the 'New Egyptian Empire", Mentuhotep of the eleventh dynasty, from "Middle Egyptian Empire", there are also Temple relieves that also show this goddess being worship by the sixth dynasty Pharaoh Pepi I, of the "Old Egyptian Empire", and during the fourth Cheops fourth Dynasty pharaoh, t builder of the "Great Pyramid"; In the vicinity as well, there are also found tombs that go farther back in time to the First Dynastic period.

Back of Dendera temple Qena Egypt

Although, that Dendera was not a true powerful economic province, was of much significance in the minds of all the Egyptian or foreign rulers that ever were, that did underline Hathor Importance.

The pillars in the principal colonnade of the Temple usually are round and on the top of the columns, displays the Face of goddess Hathor that appears to face the four cardinal points, covering the four Cardinal point of either heaven, earth or both with a trapezoidal mastaba like a shrine as Head-dress.

The entire columns probably also resemble a Sistrum an Egyptian musical-instrument related to this goddess, most likely in reasons that the columns were conceived as a personification of this goddess, and goes together with the Name that she had " She of the holy columns"

The crocodile was an extremely valuable animal, was taken as a deity of the city, as well the cow, which represents her as a sky goddess. She is also commonly represented as a Cow or a Woman with horns and a Disk in the middle, at times accompanied by a serpent.

Details at a chapel in the back of the Dendera or Dandara temple Egypt

Her name written in Hieroglyph, is a square-figure, which means House with a falcon inside, meaning that she was the house or temple of Heru or Horus, the solar god associates to Ra, the Sun god; therefore, clearly shows that Egyptians related a House or Temple to the Sky or Heaven. Also being the spouse or counterpart of Heru or Horus she as well was related to the Day or/and the night sky, as well, as the Milky Way or the whole sky.

In Dendera is the famous “Dendera Zodiac”; although, the original is now at Louvre museum in Paris, its well done artistic-copy. The Zodiac Chamber was dedicated to Death and Resurrection, as well to the Divine Birth honoring where Heru or Horus the Child was born. There are also numerous carvings of gods and goddess like Bess, the god-protector at Child Birth, Nut the mother goddess of the Sky and scenes dedicated to the Osiris Symbolism and others like the god Khnum a Ram-headed god, patron of Artists and Creator of every living matter by using a potter, as well, there is at one of the lintels at the Temple-entrance the carved-image of Khepera the god Rebirth.

Sky Goddess Hathor cow horns crown Dendera temple Qena Egypt