The Great Pyramids of Pharaohs Kheops Khefren and Menkaure at Giza Plateau Egypt

Giza or Gizah is an ancient Necropolis, located in the outer edge of Egypt's actual capital city Cairo, its construction took place, during the Fourth Egyptian Dynasty of the "Old Empire" Time period. The well-known Pharaoh Khufu or Kheops, the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty changed the Royal burial place, He moved from Memphis’s Necropolis Area, where are located, Sakkara, where the first "Step Pyramid" (First Pyramid Ever) was built during the Third Dynasty, by Pharaoh Zoser and Dashur where his father Seneferu built the first True Pyramid ever, Kheops went towards An or Annu, a city now located in the outskirts of Cairo, known as the center of Solar worshiping, which Greeks renamed to Heliopolis (The city of the Sun) for that reason.

aereal view great pyramids Egypt

Pharaoh Khufu or Kheops, also changed the alignment of the Royal Tombs, which before they were set in the direction, from North to South, and from there on, the Royal funerary buildings, will follow the Sun Path, East to West trajectory. However, the Tomb direction inside of the Pyramids continued in the North-South, Sky direction, that is where the Zodiac Ark can be seen since Egypt is located in Earth Northern Hemisphere.

Giza is best known for the three Pyramids, known as the "Great Pyramids", built by the pharaohs Khufu, Khafra, and Menkaure, also known by their Greek name: Kheops, Khefren and Micerino. However, in this area, there are 11 known pyramids up to the moment.

At the East side of Pharaoh Kheops pyramid, there are four additional pyramids as part of his mortuary Complex, three additional Step-pyramids, were built for his mother, wife and his "Ka" or living Spirit.

In Pharaoh's Menkaure or Micerino pyramid burial Complex, also are three Step-pyramids, are built at the South side of the pyramid, rather than the East side like in Khufu or Kheops pyramid; in the whole Giza plateau, there are also two more pyramids at the side of Khafra or Khefren pyramid, but hard to spot since they are deteriorated and being studied for restoration.

the great pyramids Giza or Gizah

In Giza Valley burial Complex, there is a significant amount of Mastabas (Mausoleum like buildings) and who knows what else is buried under the Sand.

At this time period of the Fourth Egyptian Dynasty burial Complex, the main effort was dedicated to the burial site or Rulers Tomb, rather than the Mortuary Temples; a great contrast with following dynasties that gave preference to the Temples and Mortuary Temples, rather than the Tomb itself, a distinct contradictory custom; matter of fact, during the Eleventh Dynasty the Tomb was integrated to the Temple, in other word, the Tomb was absorbed by the Temple.

The Artistic Architectonic decoration, also almost disappeared during Giza burial time-period, and Style as well changed it looks for a simple Architectural Stylishness that displays, simpler straight-sharp lines, heavier lintels and columns, showing a much Sober and heavier looks with a sense of Power..

Giza or Gizeh is a vast burial Complex, where the main affluent families chose this place as their Final Resting Place on Earth, and the reason why, they built a massive Necropolis, populated by a large number of Mastabas, a feature that give the impression of a well-organized city, with streets and roads, facing the Pyramid of their Ruler, matter of fact, the pyramid of Kheops is the most populated, a fact that, in a phenomenon that looks contradictory because it is thought that Pharaoh Khufu or Kheops, was not a much-loved Pharaoh, although, on the other hand, many chose to be buried at his side, meaning that he was of much importance to them.

Temple complex Chefren's Pyramid

Zahi Hawass an Egyptian well-known archaeologist, said: the only reason why they were upset with him, was the fact that this Pharaoh enforced to believe "He was the Sun god itself" and not because he was too authoritarian.

Another curious change during of the Fourth Dynasty was that the last Pharaoh Shepseskaf, finished to make his father Pyramid (Micerino), but he went back to Sakkara, to make for himself, a Mastaba rather than a Pyramid, as well, his daughter married the High priest of Memphis, which shows a shift in relation to Sky deities believes by the Royal family.

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The Great Pyramids of Pharaohs Kheops Khefren and Myserino at Giza Plateau Egypt
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